Augustine, Sermon 131, Against Pelagians

[I found this sermon in the course of looking for places where Augustine speaks of Papal authority. The last paragraph refers to the “Apostolic See,” but the whole sermon looked interesting enough that I attempted a translation of the whole.]

Sermon 131 (Sermon 105 on the New Testament)
On the words of the Gospel of John (6:54-66), “Unless ye eat flesh,” etc., and on the words of the Apostle and the Psalms, against Pelganians. Had for the feast of the Martyr Saint Cyprian, 9th Kalends of October [Sep 22?], on the Lord’s Day.

Sacrament of the body and blood of Christ.

1. We have heard the true Teacher, divine Redeemer, human Savior, commending to us our reward, his blood. For it was spoken to us about his body and blood; the body he called food, the blood drink. The faithful recognize the sacrament of the faithful. However what do those hearing hear different? Therefore the one commending such food and such drink would say: Unless you eat my flesh, and drink my blood, you will not have life in you (and he would say this about life, who else than life itself? However it will be the death of man, not life, to him who thought life was lying). His disciples were scandalized, not all, but many, saying among themselves: This saying is hard, who is able to hear it? However when the Lord would have himself been aware of this, and would have heard the murmurs of thought from those thinking, he did not respond with his voice to those making noise, that they would know themselves to be heard, and would stop thinking such things. What did he then respond? This scandalizes you? What then if you would see the Son of man rising to where he was before? What he want for himself: The scandalizes you? You think that about this my body which you see, I am to make parts, and chop up my members, and give them to you? What: What then if you would see the Son of man rising to where he was before? Surely who was able to ascend whole, is not able to be consumed. Therefore also from his body and blood he gave us healthy restoration, and so quickly solved a great question about his integrity. And so those who eat would eat, those who drink would drink; they would hunger and thirst: they would eat life and drink life. To eat that is to be rebuilt: but you are rebuilt so that you fail not from where you are rebuilt. What is it to drink that, except to live? Eat life, drink life: you will have life, and it is a whole life. Moreover, this will be, that the body and blood of Christ will be life for each; if what is taken in the Sacrament visibly would itself actually be eaten spiritually and drink spiritually. For we heard the Lord himself saying: It is the Spirit who vivifies, the flesh profits nothing whatsoever. The words which I have spoken to you, are spirit and life. But there are certain ones, he says, who do not believe. They themselves say: This saying is hard, who can hear it? It is hard, but you are hard: this is incredible, but you are incredulous.

Faith a gift of God. The violence of sweet grace.

2. But that he may also teach us to believe him to be gifts, not merits: Just as, he says, I said to you, no one comes to me, except him to whom it is given by my Father. However where the Lord will have said this (if we recall the higher things of the Gospel), we will find him to have said, No one comes to me, unless the Father (who sent me) will have drawn him. He did not say: “will have led”, but “will have drawn”. This becomes violence for the heart, not for the flesh. At what then do you wonder? Believe, and you will come; love, and you will be drawn. Lest you would judge this violence bitter and annoying: it is pleasant, it is sweet; sweetness itself draws you. Is not a sheep drawn, when grass is shown to a hungry sheep? And I think that it is not impelled in the body, but is brought by desire. So you also, come to Christ: do not consider long journeys; where you believe, there you come. For to him who is everywhere, one is come by loving, not by seafaring [navigating]. But even in such a journey, there abound the waves and tempests of diverse temptations; believe in the Crucified One, that your faith may be able to ascend the wood. You will not be sunk, but you will be carried by the wood. Thus and so was he navigating in the waves of this age, he who was saying: Far be it from me to glory, except in the cross of the our Lord Jesus Christ.

Neither faith nor a good life is conferred by one’s own powers.

3. However it is strange that with the foresaid crucified Christ, two hear, one contemns, the other ascends. Who comtemns would ascribe it to himself; who ascends would not confer [arroget] it on himself. For he heard from the teacher: No one comes to me, unless it is given to him by my Father. He would rejoice, because it is given: he would give thanks to the giver with a heart humble, not arrogant; lest what he merited humble, he would lose proud. For even those who now walk in the just path itself, if they were to attribute this to their powers, they would perish from that. And so teaching us humility, Holy Scripture says through the Apostle: Work out your salvation with fear and trembling. And lest they attribute something to themselves from this, that he said, work ye out, he immediately added, For it is God who work in you, both to will and to do, by his good will. It is God who works in us; therefore, with fear and trembling, make ye a valley, receive ye the rain. The depths are filled, the high places are dried up. The rain is grace. Why therefore do you wonder, if God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble? Therefore: with fear and trembling; that is, “with humility.” Do not desire to know the height, but be afraid. Be afraid, that you may be filled; do not desire to know the height, lest you be dried up.

It is necessary to be justified by grace, that he may walk in the just path.

4. But now you say, “I walk this path. It was useful that I learn, useful that through the teaching of the Law I would know what I would do: I have free choice of will; who will separate me from this path?” If you read carefully, you will find a certain one who from his abundance (which he had received) began to extol himself; however you will find the Lord took away the mercy he had given him, that he may teach humility; but you will find immediately that he remained poor, and you will find that he confessed by recollection the mercy of God, saying: I said in my abundance: I will not move, forever. I said in my abundance. But I said; I, a man, said: Every man is a liar. I said. Therefore: I said in my abundance; such was the abundance, that I would dare to say this: I will not move, forever. What then? Lord, in your your will you set applied virtue to me honor. However you turned your face from me, and I was made disturbed. You showed me, he says, that that by which I was abounding, was from yours. You showed me from whom I would ask, to whom I would attribute what I had received, to whom I ought to give thanks, to whom I would run thirsting, from whom I would be filled, and by which I would guard that to for which I was filled. For I will guard my strength for you, you great giver, by whom I would be filled, you savior I would not lose. I will guard my strength for you. That you may show this to him: You turned your face from me, I was made disturbed. Disturbed, because dried up; dried up, because exalted. Therefore, dry and arid, say, that you may again be filled: My soul is for you as a land without water. Say: My soul is for you as a land without water. For you had said, not the Lord: I will not move, forever. You said this, presuming about yourself; but it was not from yourself, and you were thinking as if it was from yourself.

One walking in a just path, if he attributed that to himself, perishes from the just path.

5. What therefore says the Lord? Serve the Lord in fear, and exalt him with trembling. So also the Apostle: Work out your salvation with fear and trembling, for it is God who works in you. Therefore, Exalt with trembling. Lest the Lord be angered. I see that you anticipate with shouting. For you know what I am going to say, so you anticipate with shouting. And whence do you have this, except that he taught you, him to whom you came with trusting? Therefore he says this: Hear what you learned; I do not teach, but I recall by preaching: indeed, I neither teach, because you had learned; nor do I recall, because you had remembered; but together we say what you hold with us. The Lord says this: Apprehend teaching, and exalt, but: with trembling, that always humble you may hold that you received. Lest the Lord be angered, with the proud, attributing what they have to themselves, not with those giving thanks to the one from whom they have. Lest the Lord be angered, and you perish from the just way. Is it said: Lest the Lord be angered, and you would not come to the just path? Or is it said: Lest the Lord be angered, and leads you not to the just path, or not admit you to the just path? You now walk in this path, do not be proud, lest even now you would perish from it. And you would perish, he sais, from the just path. When he will have blazed up in his quick wrath upon you. Not taking a long time. Where you are proud, there you have accepted that you will perish. By these things a man will be frightened as if he would say: What then will I do? It follows: Blessed are all who confide in him; not in themselves, but in him. By grace we are saved, not from us, but it is a gift of God.

Against Pelagians. Remission of sins in baptism. Faintness after baptism.

6. Perhaps you will say: What does he want for himself that he often says this? And the again, and the a third time: and he almost never speaks, except when he says this. If only I spoke [not?] with out cause. For there are men ungrateful of grace, many attributing it their blind and weak natures. It is true, a man with great powers of free choice, when he was put together, accepted it; but by sinning he lost it. He lapsed into death, was made infirm, he was left aside on the path by thieves, half-alive; the Samaritan going out to him, lifted him onto his mule (Samaritan is interpreted “Guard”); he led him even to the stable. Who will be lifted up? For this he will be provided. But indeed it suffices, he says, for me to have received in baptism the remission of all sins. But is the infirmity finished because the iniquity is wiped out? To have received the remission of all sins, he says. It is entirely true. All sins were baptized in the sacrament of baptism, certainly all things said, done, thought, were all wiped away. But indeed this was poured out on the path: oil and wine. You retain, most beloved, how he was consoled, the half-alive in the path wounded by thieves, receiving oil and wine for his wounds. Now certain he was dispensed from his errors, and yet his weakness is healed in the stable. If you recognize the stable, it is the Church. Only a stable, because by living we go over: it will be a house, whence we will never depart, when we will come sound to the kingdom of the heavens. Meanwhile may we be freely cared for in the stable, that the weak may not glory about soundness; may we make nothing else so as to be made proud, unless we would never be healed by caring.

Four benefits of grace: remission of sins, treatment of weakness, redemption from every corruption and concupiscience.

7. Bless, my soul, the Lord. Say to your soul, say: You are still in this life, you still carry this fragile flesh, the body which is corrupted still aggravates the soul; even after the wholeness of remission, you received the remedy of prayer; you still certainly say, until your weaknesses are healed: Forgive us our debts. Say then to your soul, humble in the valleys, do not set up in the hills; say to your soul: Bless, my soul, the Lord, and do not forget all his retributions. Which retributions? Say, number them, give thanks. Which retributions? That he comes to be well-disposed to all your iniquities. This was done in baptism. What came to be in this way? He who heals all your weaknesses. This comes to be in this way: I acknowledge. But while I am here, the body which is correupted aggravates the soul. Say therefore also what follows: Who redeems your life from corruption. What remains after redemption from corruption? When this corruptible will be clothed in incorruption, and the mortal will be clothed in immortality, then will come to be the word which is written: death is swallowed up in victory. Where, death, is your contention? Right there: Where, death, is your sting? You seek his place, and you will not find. What is the sting of death? What is it: Where, death, is your sting? Where is sin? You seek, and it is nowhere. For the sting of death is sin. Not my words, but the Apostle’s. Then it is said: Where, death, is your sting? Sin will be nowhere, that it may neither take you, nor attack you, nor titillate your concupiscence. Then it will not be said: Forgive us our debts. But what will be said? Lord our God, give us peace: for you have restored to us all things.

The last benefit of grace, the crown of justice.

8. Finally, after redemption from every corruption, what remains except the crown of justice? This certainly remains that he may receive a crown, but yet in this or under this crown is not an inflated head. Hear, attend to the Psalm, which does not want this crown on an inflated head. When he would have said: Who redeems your life from corruption; he says, Who crowns you. Now you are about say: He crowns you, my merits confess [?], my power did this: a debt is rendered, it is not given. Hear what God would say: Who crowns you in pity and mercy. From mercy he crowns you, from pity he crowns you. For you were not worthy that he would call, and called that he would justify, and justified that he would glorify. The remnants were saved through election of grace. However if by grace, it is not now from works: otherwise grace is not now grace. For to him who works, rewards are not imputed according to grace, but according to debt. The Apostle speaks: Not according to grace, but according to debt. However he crowns you in pity and mercy: and if your merits would go before you, God says to you: Inquire well into your merits, and you will see that they are my gifts.

The justice of God, which is unknown to Jews and Pelagians. Grace hidden in O.T., revealed in N.T.

9. Therefore this is the justice of God. Just as it is said: Salvation of the Lord, not as if the Lord is saved, but that he gives it to those whom he saves: so also the grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord, is called the justice of God, not as if Lord is just, but that he justifies those whom he makes just from being wicked. [Super long sentence:] But certain ones, as Jews in another time, and wanting themselves to be called Christians, and yet not knowing the justice of God, want to establish their own, even in our times, in times of open grace, in times of grace now revealed but before hidden, in times now in the area of manifest grace, which at sometime was lying hidden in a fleece. I see few to have understood, many to have not understood, those who I will by no means defraud by keeping quiet. A certain Gideon from the ancient just ones asked the from the Lord a sign, and he said: I ask, Lord, that this fleece which I put in this area, that it be rained upon, and that the area be dry. It was done: the fleece was rained upon, the whole area was dry. In the morning, he pressed out the fleece into a shallow bowl; for grace is given to the humble: and in a shallow bowl you learned what the Lord will have done for his disciples. Again he asked another sign: I want, he says, Lord, that the fleece be dry, and the area be rained upon. And it was done. Return to the time of the Old Testament, grace is hidden in a cloud, like fire in a fleece. Attend now to the time of the New Testament, examine the Jewish people, you will find them as a dry fleece; but the whole world (like the area) is full of grace, not hidden, but manifest. Whence we are compelled to lament for many of our brothers who contend, not against hidden grace, but against open and manifest grace. The Jews are pardoned. What, Christians? Why are you enemies of of the grace of Christ? Why are you presuming about yourselves? Why ungrateful? For why did Christ come? Was this not nature? Was it not nature, which by praising you deceive many? Was this not the Law? But the Apostles says: If justice is through the Law, then Christ died for nothing [gratis]. What the Apostle said that about the Law, this you know we say about nature: If justice is through nature, then Christ died for nothing [gratis].

Council against Pelagians.

10. What then is said about the Jews, we see this entirely in these. They have the zeal of God. I will a witness to them, because they have the zeal of God, but not according to knowledge. What is it: Not according to science? For not knowing the justice of God, and wanting to build their own, they are not subject to the justice of God. My brothers, suffer with me. Where you find such things, do not hide them, may it not be a perverse mercy in you: by all means, if you find such things, do not hide them. Refute the contradictors, and lead the resistant ones to us. For now about this case, two councils were sent to the Apostolic See: whence also responses came. The case is finished: if only the error were at some point finished! Therefore we warn that they may turn, we teach that they may be instructed, let us pray that they may be changed. Turn to the Lord…

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